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Simple Intro Plus 5 Skilled Ideas

There are many several types of polymerase chain response (PCR) you may need heard of or wish to use for a particular requirement within the lab. Considered one of these is landing PCR.

To be trustworthy, once I first heard of landing PCR, I considered a touchdown plane, which, because it seems will not be a nasty manner to consider it.

Landing PCR is a really helpful approach for enhancing PCR amplification specificity and sensitivity.

Nonetheless, utilizing this system within the lab may be trickier than it may appear at first. So on this article, I’ll present a primer on landing PCR and offer you 5 key suggestions and references for perfecting it.

The Drawback of Non-Particular Amplification

So what’s the difficulty with non-specific amplification? PCRs can, and infrequently do, endure from points resembling non-specific amplification. Mispriming, the place primers bind non-specific sequences within the DNA template, ensuing within the DNA polymerase amplifying the unsuitable template DNA sequence, is one reason for non-specific bands on gel following PCR.

How you can Remove Non-Particular Amplification in PCR

Cautious design of PCR primers may also help cut back the change of off-target binding, though the sequence of the specified goal DNA does restrict the selection. Optimizing the PCR circumstances by testing numerous annealing temperatures and different circumstances is one other manner, though this may be time-consuming to finish.

One other, much less time- and resource-intensive possibility, is to make use of landing PCR.

What’s Landing PCR?

Landing PCR is a modification of PCR used to assist cut back non-specific annealing and amplification. The preliminary annealing temperature is about larger than the optimum melting temperature (Tm) of the primers and is then steadily decreased over subsequent cycles till the Tm or “landing temperature” is reached, very similar to the landing of an airplane onto the runway (Determine 1).

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Determine 1: Illustration of landing PCR cycles and the way annealing temperature adjustments. Picture credit score: Laura Grassie.

A gradual reducing of temperature to a extra permissive annealing temperature throughout the course of biking favors amplification of the specified amplicon.

Benefits of Landing PCR

In all varieties of PCR, it’s important to find out the optimum annealing temperature. That is usually decided primarily based on the Tm of the primer-template pair.

However, primer Tm may be affected by the person buffer parts, and even primer and template concentrations, which means any calculated primer Tm worth is simply an approximation. [1]. Due to this fact, it’s typically tough to seek out the precise annealing temperature for a given primer/template mixture.

Too low annealing temperatures can result in primer-dimer formation and non-specific merchandise whereas too excessive temperatures can cut back yield as a consequence of poor primer annealing.

By utilizing temperatures larger than the calculated Tm within the preliminary cycles, landing PCR favors the buildup of amplicons whose primer-template complementarity is the very best. The stepwise transition to a decrease temperature throughout the subsequent cycles guards towards decrease yields by making use of the specified amplicons within the response that now outcompete any non-specific merchandise or primer-dimers if current.

Landing PCR Protocol

There’s a protocol printed in Nature Protocols, [2] which works very nicely and is a good reference to start out off with for landing PCR.

The recommended biking program has two phases. The primary section of landing programming makes use of a Tm that’s roughly 10°C above the calculated Tm. The temperature is decreased by 1°C each successive cycle till the calculated Tm vary is reached. That is accomplished for a complete of 10–15 cycles.

Section 2 follows generic PCR amplification of as much as 20–25 cycles utilizing the ultimate annealing temperature reached within the landing section (Desk 1).

Desk 1: An instance of a landing PCR protocol primarily based on a Tm of 57°C.

Stage and variety of cycles

The cycles and temperature drop throughout the landing section may be adjusted from 1–3 cycles per 1-3°C drop in temperature if non-specific merchandise are nonetheless noticed or if the yield is low. You may also set the ultimate annealing temperature 1–2°C beneath the calculated Tm.

5 Key Ideas for Profitable Landing-PCR

1. Maintain Reactions Cool

Preserving all reactions chilly till thermal biking begins is essential to avoiding non-specific priming even with landing PCR. So get that ice bucket prepared and hold all of your parts chilly till the final second!

2. Use a Sizzling-Begin Setup

Okay! So I do know we simply mentioned to maintain cool. However as soon as your reactions are able to go, a hot-start setup is most popular to assist additional cut back non-specific interactions throughout the preliminary cycles.

3. Think about Components

In case you are nonetheless getting points when utilizing landing PCR, take into account combining it with components. There are a number of helpful PCR components, which may also help increase specificity in your PCR response, particularly when you’ve got tough targets (e.g., GC-rich sequences).

4. Maintain Cycle Numbers Low

Too many cycles can result in the looks of non-specific bands within the gel, indicating non-specific amplification. To restrict this, hold the full variety of PCR amplification cycles, together with the landing section to beneath 35.

5. Add an Additional Denaturation Cycle

An additional 1 min denaturation cycle at 96°C or 97°C could also be extraordinarily helpful for tough templates.

Landing PCR Summarized

In brief, landing PCR is a way to restrict non-specific amplification by beginning with a excessive annealing temperature and slowly reducing this over PCR cycles till the specified annealing temperature is reached.

You should utilize landing PCR to beat problems with non-specific amplification and primer dimer formation. So now you perceive what landing PCR is, what its particular benefits are and you’re armed with some key tricks to make your reactions go easily. We hope this helps- in the event you’ve had any successes (or disasters!) utilizing landing PCR tell us within the feedback and share your high suggestions!


  1. Roux Ok (1995) Optimization and troubleshooting in PCR. PCR Strategies Appl. 5 185-94. 
  2. Korbie D Mattick J (2008) Landing PCR for elevated specificity and sensitivity in PCR amplification. Nat Protoc 3, 1452–1456.

Initially printed July 20, 2009. Up to date and republished, July 2022.

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