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Bodily & Chemical Properties of Water

Core Ideas

On this tutorial on the properties of water, you’ll be taught in regards to the bodily and chemical properties of water. Additionally, you will be taught in regards to the construction of a water molecule.

Matters Lined in Different Articles

Polarity of Water


Solvent v.s. Solute

Particular Warmth



Density- Mass per unit quantity

Particular Warmth Capability- Quantity of vitality required to boost the temperature of 1 kg of a cloth by 1 C

Warmth of Vaporization- Quantity of vitality required to remodel a amount of a liquid right into a fuel

Polar Molecule- A molecule with {a partially} detrimental charged finish and {a partially} constructive charged finish

Electronegativity- Tendency for an atom to draw shared electrons in a chemical bond

Introduction to Properties of Water

Water (H20) is the “common solvent” and essentially the most considerable floor on Earth. It’s also the one frequent substance to exist as a stable, liquid, and fuel naturally. Water molecules type hydrogen bonds and are extraordinarily polar. The 5 predominant properties of water are its excessive polarity, excessive particular warmth, excessive warmth of vaporization, low density as a stable, and attraction to different polar molecules.

Polarity and Construction

One oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms make a water molecule. It has a bent molecular geometry with the oxygen having two lone pairs of electrons. The distinction in electronegativity between the oxygen and hydrogens causes the oxygen to have a partial detrimental cost and the hydrogen to have a partial constructive cost. This distinction in cost causes polarity. The partial constructive cost of the hydrogen of 1 water molecule attracts the partial detrimental cost of the oxygen of one other water molecule. This attraction is known as hydrogen bonding. 

Hydrogen bonding is weaker than the covalent bonds between the oxygen and hydrogens of the identical molecule however causes a lot of water’s distinctive properties. For instance, extra vitality is required to interrupt hydrogen bonds, so water has a better melting and boiling level.

Common Solvent

Water is the solvent of life. Hydrophilic substances are people who dissolve in water, whereas hydrophobic substances don’t combine properly with water. Substances can dissolve in water if they’ll match or overcome the hydrogen bonding between water molecules. If they can not, the substance types a precipitate. Acids, alcohols, and salts are reasonably soluble in water whereas fat and oils are hydrophobic. 

An ionic solute dissolved in water turns into separated. For instance, NaCl separates into Na+ cations and Cl- anions surrounded by water molecules. Water is amphoteric, that means it will probably act as both an acid or a base relying on the answer. It might produce each H+ and OH- ions. 

Particular Warmth Capability

Water has a excessive particular warmth of 4184J/(kg x Okay) at 20 C and excessive warmth of vaporization due to hydrogen bonding. This enables our bodies of water to have minimal fluctuations in temperature to control local weather.

Water’s excessive warmth of vaporization permits people to make use of sweat to chill off. Sweat is usually fabricated from water. It absorbs extra physique warmth because it evaporates. This course of is named evaporative cooling.


Water’s density is 1 gram per cubic cm. That is used to outline the gram. As a substitute of present process thermal enlargement, the density rises with temperature to a peak of three.98 C after which decreases. Unfavourable thermal enlargement is the rise in density between 32 and 39.16 F. In consequence, ice is much less dense than water, which has a lower in density by about 10%. That is why our bodies of water might have a layer of ice on the floor however comprise liquid beneath. This enables fish and marine life to outlive beneath the ice. Excessive particular warmth retains the temperature of the water comparatively secure by way of the winter in order that marine life can survive.

Salt content material lowers the freezing level of the ocean by nearly 2 C. Ice nonetheless floats on the ocean, however the ice is close to salt-free with an analogous density to ice on our bodies of freshwater. The salt provides to the salinity and density of the remaining water which sinks by convection. This course of is known as brine rejection. 


Compressibility is a results of strain and temperature. The compressibility of water is so low that’s usually assumed to be incompressible. Low compressibility permits water in deep oceans with excessive strain to solely lower by 1.8% in quantity.

Electrical Conductivity

Pure water is an efficient insulator, however deionized water isn’t utterly freed from ions. Water undergoes a course of referred to as autoionization as a liquid. Because of this two water molecules can type one hydroxide anion (OH-) and one hydronium cation (H30+).

Cohesion and Adhesion

Hydrogen bonds between water molecules are consistently breaking and reforming with different water molecules. Cohesion is the flexibility of water molecules to stay collectively. Water’s polarity additionally offers water excessive adhesion: the flexibility to stay to different surfaces. The adhesive forces are stronger than cohesive forces.

Robust cohesion and adhesion trigger water to exhibit capillary motion. Capillary motion is the method of liquid flowing by way of a slim area with out and infrequently towards gravity. Water adheres to the partitions of crops’ roots and rises up into the plant. Porous supplies corresponding to water additionally exhibit capillary motion. Bushes can transport water by way of capillary motion over 100 meters.

Floor Stress

The hydrogen bonding additionally causes water to have a excessive floor pressure of 71.99mN/m at 25. The floor pressure is excessive sufficient for bugs to stroll on water. Floor pressure is a results of water’s cohesive properties. Water droplets and water rising above the rim of a glass present water’s excessive floor pressure. Be taught extra in regards to the properties of water right here.



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